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For those of you who do not know what
It is functionally similar to Dropbox out of the box, but with the ability to install addon’s like video conference calling, facebook style messenger, antivirus, and online office document editing to compete and replace Microsoft Office 365 or Google Drive/Docs.
Step 1: Prerequisites
In order to get up and running with Nextcloud, we are going to have to install a few more packages to your server.
*NOTE* This guide assumes you have already installed the LAMP stack
from Install the latest LAMP stack on Ubuntu 16.04 Server
Nextcloud needs a minimum of 128MB RAM, and they recommend a minimum of 512MB to get started, however I would recommend a minimum of 2GB to be able to run all the cool addons, but if all you want is a dropbox replacement without all the extras then 512MB should work just fine, however keep in mind this guide is prepping for all the frills down the road.
* PHP module bz2 (required for extraction of apps)
* PHP module SimpleXML
* PHP module XMLReader
* PHP module XMLWriter
* PHP module intl ()
* PHP module smbclient
* PHP module imap
sudo apt install php7.0-bz2 php7.0-xml php7.0-pspell php7.0-intl php7.0-gmp php7.0-imap php-smbclient php-redis
Optional but recommended packages:
sudo apt install ffmpeg libreoffice php-imagick
Step 2: Configure the PHP.ini file
Alright so here we have 2 files to edit, one is the config apache will use and the other the system will use.
First let’s configure the apache php.ini
sudo nano /etc/php/7.0/apache2/php.ini
We are going to be doing some search, to search with nano you press “Ctrl + w”
Find ;date.timezone = and delete the ; and make it look like this date.timezone = America/New_York Find upload_max_filesize = and change it to at least 500M upload_max_filesize = 500M Find max_execution_time = 30 and change it to max_execution_time = 360 Find ;opcache.enable= and delete the ; and make it opcache.enable=1 Do the same for the following opcache.enable_cli=1 opcache.interned_strings_buffer=8 opcache.max_accelerated_files=10000 opcache.memory_consumption=128 opcache.save_comments=1 opcache.revalidate_freq=1 Ctrl + x followed by y then enter to save
Now to edit the systems php.ini
sudo nano /etc/php/7.0/cli/php.ini Same as above, find and change these date.timezone = America/New_York opcache.enable=1 opcache.enable_cli=1 opcache.interned_strings_buffer=8 opcache.max_accelerated_files=10000 opcache.memory_consumption=128 opcache.save_comments=1 opcache.revalidate_freq=1 Ctrl + x followed by y then enter to save
Step 3: Configure MySQL/MariaDB Server
Now before we go and create the database & user we need to make a slight adjustment to MySQL.
The change we are making is just telling the server to use InnoDB storage engine as nextcloud doesn’t support MyISAM (Default).
sudo nano /etc/mysql/mariadb.conf.d/50-server.cnf
Alright, now we can go about this 1 of 2 ways depending on how you like to organize your settings.
We can create a new section in the config under [mysqld] with a collection of all your new tweaks, or we can add them to their own preexisting section # * InnoDB.
I’m going to create a new section below.
find [mysqld] and under it enter this ### Nextcloud Settings ### innodb_buffer_pool_size=1G innodb_io_capacity=4000 Ctrl + x followed by y then enter to save
Next lets go ahead and enter the mysql server’s cli
sudo mysql -uroot
To create the database we need to enter
CREATE DATABASE nextcloud;
And the username & password, replace nextclouduser with whatever you want. *NOTE* this account should only ever be used by nextcloud
CREATE USER 'nextclouduser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'new_secure_password_here';
Lets give the user you created above permission to use the new database
GRANT ALL ON nextcloud.* TO 'nextclouduser'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION;
Finally we need to save the changes & exit
FLUSH PRIVILEGES; EXIT;
Step 4: Downloading Nextcloud
Navigate to https://nextcloud.com/install/ and click Download.
Click “Details and Download” options, and then
Switch back to your server and
pushd /tmp wget https://download.nextcloud.com/server/releases/nextcloud-14.0.1.tar.bz2
Once the download has finished we need to extract it
sudo tar xf ./nextcloud-14.0.1.tar.bz2 -C /opt/ popd
After it finishes extracting, we need to change some permissions and create a data directory.
sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /opt/nextcloud sudo chmod -R 755 /opt/nextcloud sudo mkdir /media/nextcloud sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /media/nextcloud
Step 5: Configuring Apache
Almost there, next step is to create the apache config we will use to serve the nextcloud site.
Go ahead and create the config file
sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/nextcloud.conf
Now we need to create the virtual host.
Change ServerAdmin to match one of your emails
Set ServerName & ServerAlias to your domain name
<VirtualHost *:80> ServerAdmin email@example.com DocumentRoot /opt/nextcloud/ ServerName ncsite.com ServerAlias www.ncsite.com Alias /nextcloud "/opt/nextcloud/" <Directory /opt/nextcloud/> Options +FollowSymlinks AllowOverride All Require all granted <IfModule mod_dav.c> Dav off </IfModule> SetEnv HOME /opt/nextcloud SetEnv HTTP_HOME /opt/nextcloud </Directory> <IfModule headers_module> RequestHeader set X-HTTPS 1 Header set Referrer-Policy "no-referrer-when-downgrade" </IfModule> ErrorLog /var/log/apache2/nc-error.log CustomLog /var/log/apache2/nc-access.log combined </VirtualHost> Ctrl + x followed by y then enter to save
Next, we need to enable the config and a few modules.
sudo a2ensite nextcloud.conf sudo a2enmod rewrite sudo a2enmod headers sudo a2enmod env sudo a2enmod dir sudo a2enmod mime
If you would also like it to be the default site, i.e. type in the ip and it will server nextcloud go ahead and enter this
sudo a2dissite 000-default
Now we just need to restart apache
sudo service apache2 restart
Step 6: Install & Configure Redis Caching Server
Using a memory caching server can significantly improve the performance of Nextcloud, where frequently requested objects are stored in memory for faster retrieval.
To install this wonder enter the following
sudo apt install redis-server
Once installed lets go and configure it
sudo apt install redis-server
We dont have to do much, the only thing we are going to do is enable the redis socket, and make it writable.
Find ;unixsocket /var/run/redis/redis.sock and remove the ; It should look like this unixsocket /var/run/redis/redis.sock Next right under it you should see unixsocketperm 700, go ahead and change it to this unixsocketperm 766 Ctrl + x followed by y then enter to save
Now restart the Redis server
sudo service redis restart
Step 7: Nextcloud Installer
Go back to your browser and navigate to your nextcloud server’s domain name.
Enter the username and password you would like for the admin account.
Set Data Folder
For the database user, enter the mysql user we created back in step 3 followed by the password you used in the database password field.
For the database name, enter “nextcloud” unless you chose a different name back in step 3.
Leave localhost alone
Step 8: Final Configuration of nextcloud’s config.php
We are going to be adding 2 things to nextcloud’s config.php. 1 is to enable prettyurls.
Pretty URLs remove the
index.php-part in all Nextcloud URLs, for example in sharing links like
https://ncsite.com/index.php/s/somethingmaking URLs shorter and prettier. Second is to enable the Redis Caching Server.
First lets open the config in nano
sudo nano /opt/nextcloud/config/config.php
Next add this line under ‘overwrite.cli.url’ => ‘https://ncsite.com/’,
... 'overwrite.cli.url' => 'https://ncsite.com/', 'htaccess.RewriteBase' => '/',
Now to add the Redis server, goto the end of the file right after ‘installed’ => true, and right before );
*NOTE* Make sure you set a good secure password, as redis does not
use authentication and anyone with access could potentially read
'memcache.local' => '\OC\Memcache\Redis', 'memcache.locking' => '\OC\Memcache\Redis', 'redis' => array( 'host' => '/var/run/redis/redis.sock', 'port' => 0, 'dbindex' => 0, 'password' => 'secret', 'timeout' => 1.5, ),
and finally we can add a cron job to automate nextcloud’s background tasks
crontab -u www-data -e
If it prompts you for which editor you would like to use, choose nano (2)
Once in nano, goto the bottom of the file and add this
*/15 * * * * php -f /var/www/nextcloud/cron.php
Step 9: Nextcloud Settings
From the desktop browser, navigate back to your new nextcloud domain and login.
Once logged in, click the top right colored circle with the first letter of your username and then “Settings”
Then “Basic settings” in the menu on the left.
Under “Background Jobs”, change it from AJAX to Cron.
You have finished install Nextcloud!
I will write a guide on setting up and securing SSL as well as an in-depth guide on setting up and using some of the bigger addons available
If you are interested I will also be writing a guide on how to install collabora both from source and from docker in the future along with a guide on OwnPad and maybe EtherCalc.
Hope you enjoyed it, and if you have any topics you would like me to cover please comment below!
A guide on installing the latest Apache2, Mariadb-server, and PHP7+ on Ubuntu 16
Note: You will need sudo access for the commands in this article
Video Walk-through Available
Step 1: Update / Upgrade Ubuntu
First, update ubuntu’s package manager.
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade
Next we need to install some packages that allows us to add more repositories to apt
sudo apt-get install software-properties-common language-pack-en
After those have been installed we need to add a few repositories maintained by Ondrej. They contain the latest packages as maintained by the Debian Apache/PHP/Nginx teams with a couple of compatibility patches on top.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/apache2 sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/nginx
Once the new repositories have been added we need to update/upgrade the package manager again.
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade
After the latest packages have been installed we are finally ready to start installing the stack.
First we have Apache
sudo apt install apache2
Followed by php7 and the most common extensions I usually require.
Note: You can install any version of PHP from 5.6 to 7.2 by replacing
the version number you want with 7.0
It is also not recommended to use 5.6 as it is EOL, and 7.1/7.2 may not be
supported by all packages out there
sudo apt install php7 php7.0-bcmath php7.0-curl php7.0-cli php7.0-gd
php7.0-mbstring php7.0-mcrypt php7.0-mysql php7.0-zip php7.0-json php7.0-tidy sudo apt install libapache2-mod-php7.0
Last part of the stack is MySQL server. Here we are going to be installing Mariadb Server 10. It is a drop in replacement for MySQL Server 5.7 and is regarded as a faster, more secure alternative
sudo apt install mariadb-server
Followed by setting it up for the first time
Here is the basic walk-through on the setup:
Enter current password for root - Press the Enter/Return key
Set root password? - Y
Type in a secure password twice - You are going to want something
secure here especially if you plan on using a webgui to manage your
Remove anonymous users? - Y - This removed the default/test user
Disallow root login remotely? - Y - Makes root user only accessible from
localhost / 127.0.0.1
Remove test database and access to it? - Y - Remove test databases/tables, a security threat and not for production
Reload privilege tables now? - Y - Refreshes the authentication tables,
enforces the changes above
Congratulations, you have successfully install the LAMP stack.